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A Woman’s Right to and Control over Rural Land in Ethiopia The Law and Practice  Published

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A Woman’s Right to and Control over Rural Land in Ethiopia - The Law and Practice.pdf

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A Woman’s Right to and Control over Rural Land in Ethiopia   The Law and Practice

This Article critically analyzes the law and the practice on women’s right to and control over rural land in Ethiopia.  The study employed doctrinal legal research andempirical quantitative methods to collect and analyse data from primary and secondary sources.

Addressing gender inequalities in Ethiopia’s agricultural sector to reduce poverty, 2016  Published

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Addressing gender inequalities in Ethiopia’s agricultural sector to reduce poverty, 2016.pdf

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Addressing gender inequalities in Ethiopia’s agricultural sector to reduce poverty, 2016

Potential of agriculture to spur growth, reduce poverty and transform livelihoods.  The sector is underperforming in many rural areas in part due to the constraints which affect the productivity of women.  Equal access to productive resources as men could increase yields on women’s farms by 20–30% (FAO 2011).  Agriculture one of the major sectors in GTPII.  Women and youth empowerment, participation and equity one of the GTP II pillar strategies.

Allocation of Land Tenure Rights in Tigray How Large is the Gender Bias  Published

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Allocation of Land Tenure Rights in Tigray - How Large is the Gender Bias.pdf

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Allocation of Land Tenure Rights in Tigray   How Large is the Gender Bias

ABSTRACT:  This study investigates gender differences in land ownership and use in northern Ethiopia.  Female-headed households have 23% smaller owned landholdings and 54% smaller operational landholdings.  Household endowments of nonland productive inputs are important, but decomposition analysis shows that differences in observable characteristics such as labor and oxen explain less than half of these differences, whereas the remaining differences can be attributed to differences in returns to these characteristics.  The latter suggests a gender bias in land allocation.  The main policy recommendation is to strengthen women’s opportunities to cultivate theirland and continue the process of securing women’s tenure rights. (JEL Q15)

Breaking the Norms Gender and Land Rights in Tigray, Ethiopia  Published

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Breaking the Norms - Gender and Land Rights in Tigray, Ethiopia.pdf

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Breaking the Norms   Gender and Land Rights in Tigray, Ethiopia

Rights to land determine the bargaining power of women in the society and the household, as well as determining their economic condition.  Control to land and efficient use of the land is determined by the availability of resources and existing social and institutional structures.  This study was aimed to assess the importance of land for the economic, social and empowerment change of the women, and the women’s access to resources and control over land and produce of land.  The study was carried out in two weredas of Tigray region, Ethiopia and mainly employed household interviews, focus group discussions and cases studies.

Conflicting Priorities in the Promotion of Gender Equality in Ethiopia  Published

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Conflicting Priorities in the Promotion of Gender Equality in Ethiopia.pdf

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Conflicting Priorities in the Promotion of Gender Equality in Ethiopia

The current Ethiopian government originated in a Marxist revolutionary movement, which early in its struggle against the Derg regime recognized the widespread discrimination against women in Ethiopian society and placed gender emancipation at the centre of its revolutionary strategy. While political expediency and confrontation with patriarchal Ethiopian society has at times challenged its commitment to women, the EPRDF has, nevertheless, introduced a number of reforms which aim to promote gender equality.

Continuity and Change in the Rights of Arsii Oromo Women to Property in West Arsii, Ethiopia  Published

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Continuity and Change in the Rights of Arsii Oromo Women to Property in West Arsii, Ethiopia.pdf

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Continuity and Change in the Rights of Arsii Oromo Women to Property in West Arsii, Ethiopia

Arsii Oromo men in Ethiopia traditionally dominate decision-making regarding major resources such as land and livestock, whereas the role of women has been limited primarily to domestic affairs. However, women have begun to challenge this custom-based dominance of men.

Control and Ownership of Assets Within Rural Ethiopian Households  Published

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Control and Ownership of Assets Within Rural Ethiopian Households.pdf

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Control and Ownership of Assets Within Rural Ethiopian Households

This paper investigates how the control and devolution of productive assets are allocated among husband and wife.  Theory predicts that bargaining power within marriage depends on the division of assets upon divorce and on control over assets during marriage.  Using detailed household data from rural Ethiopia, we show that assets brought to marriage, ownership of assets, control within marriage, and disposition upon death or divorce are only partly related.

Double Marginalized Livelihoods Invisible Gender Inequality in Pastoral Societies  Published

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Double Marginalized Livelihoods- Invisible Gender Inequality in Pastoral Societies.pdf

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Double Marginalized Livelihoods  Invisible Gender Inequality in Pastoral Societies

Abstract: Achieving gender equality is the Third Millennium Development Goal, and the major challenge to poverty reduction is the inability of governments to address this at grass root levels.  This study is therefore aimed at assessing gender inequality as it pertains to socio-economic factors in (agro-) pastoral societies.

Ethiopian Women Gain Status through Landholding, 2010  Published

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Ethiopian Women Gain Status through Landholding, 2010.pdf

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Ethiopian Women Gain Status through Landholding, 2010

Two years ago a Gender Action Plan study found that women benefitted from land certification when the land certificate made space for two people to register joint ownership, for instance as husband and wife, instead of only one.  Today a World Bank project expands the program that has given wives, widows and divorcees new rights, status and confidence.

Female Headed Households and Their Livelihood in Bati Wäräda, South Wollo Practices and Resistance  Published

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Female Headed Households and Their Livelihood in Bati Wäräda, South Wollo-Practices and Resistance.pdf

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Female Headed Households and Their Livelihood in Bati Wäräda, South Wollo Practices and Resistance

Households are not the same everywhere, because their structure is dependent upon social context, and they are a sub-system of wider social relations and realities (Pratt, 2006).  Understanding households necessitates the need to study the varied contexts in which households are situated and the social relations of household members within their community.

From Being Property of Men to Becoming Equal Owners Early impacts of Land Registration and Certification on Women  Published

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From Being Property of Men to Becoming Equal Owners - Early impacts of Land Registration and Certification on Women.pdf

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From Being Property of Men to Becoming Equal Owners   Early impacts of Land Registration and Certification on Women

Land reforms are again high on the international policy agenda as can be seen from the establishment of the Commission for Legal Empowerment of the Poor (seeLand reforms are again high on the international policy agenda as can be seen from the establishment of the Commission for Legal Empowerment of the Poor (see www.undp.org/legalempowerment), the increasing number of land reform programs funded by the World Bank in recent years and the establishment of the Global Network for Pro Poor Land Tools (GLTN) (see Augustinus 2005; World Bank 2006).  Among these tools are land registration and certification, wherein husbands and wives are given joint titles to their land.

GENDER AND CULTURE IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA, 2009  Published

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GENDER AND CULTURE IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA, 2009.pdf

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GENDER AND CULTURE IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA, 2009

ABSTRACT Anthropological research conducted from July 2005 to June 2006 in southern Ethiopia demonstrates that Guji-Oromo women have more subtle cultural and economicABSTRACT Anthropological research conducted from July 2005 to June 2006 in southern Ethiopia demonstrates that Guji-Oromo women have more subtle cultural and economicrights than is immediately apparent.  Women actively participate in the ritual aspect of the gada generation grade system, but they are marginally involved in political activities.

Gender and Land Country Profile Ethiopia  Published

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Gender and Land Country Profile - Ethiopia.docx

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Gender and Land Country Profile   Ethiopia

The country is a federation of ethnically-based administrative states. Its population in 2005 was estimated at 74 661 000, of which 37 117 000 were men and 37 544 000 were women. Eighty-three percent of the population lived in rural areas in 2005. Women accounted for 50 percent of the rural population in 2004. The population density in 2005 was 68 people per square kilometer. 

Gender and land productivity on rented land in Ethiopia  Published

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Gender and land productivity on rented land in Ethiopia.pdf

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Gender and land productivity on rented land in Ethiopia

This paper seeks to find explanations to why land productivity is lower on land rented out by female landlord households than on land rented out by male landlord households.  First it is demonstrated that this productivity differential is highly significant after controlling for land productivity using nearest neighbour and kernel plot matching methods.  Then we test alternative hypotheses that possibly may explain the productivity differential.

Gender and water securing water for improved rural livelihoods The multiple uses system approach  Published

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Gender and water securing water for improved rural livelihoods- The multiple-uses system approach.pdf

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Gender and water securing water for improved rural livelihoods  The multiple uses system approach

Most of the world’s 1.2 billion poor people, two thirds of whom are women, live in water-scarce countries and do not have access to safe and reliable supplies of water for productive and domestic uses (IFAD 2001a).  The bulk of these rural poor people are dependant on agriculture for their livelihoods and live in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, the regions which are also home to most of the world’s water poor (Molden 2007).  One third of the world’s population is currently experiencing some kind of physical or economic water scarcity.  A growing competition for water from different sectors, including industry, agriculture, power generation, domestic use, and the environment, is making it difficult for poor people to access this scarce resource for productive, consumptive and social uses.  In water-scarce regions and countries, inequity in access to water resources is increasing because of competition for limited resources, and this particularly affects poor rural people, especially women.

Gender Equality in Ethiopia  Published

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Gender Equality in Ethiopia.pdf

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Gender Equality in Ethiopia

Ethiopia’s constitution and national policies are consistent with international legal instruments on gender equality, including the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the Beijing Platform of Action, the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, and the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Gender Relations in Local Level Dispute Settlement in Ethiopia's Zeghie Peninsula  Published

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Gender Relations in Local-Level Dispute Settlement in Ethiopia's Zeghie Peninsula.pdf

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Gender Relations in Local Level Dispute Settlement in Ethiopia's Zeghie Peninsula

Access to tenure security in dispute settlement contexts has become a serious concern in Ethiopia’s rural areas, where eighty-five percent of the population resides, including Zeghie Peninsula.  Intense struggles for land and property resulting from growing landlessness and female-only heads of households have rendered women’s property rights a particularly contested terrain.  Existing statutory laws and policies assigning rights to property and inheritance have done little to protect women from the theft of their crops, land, or tenure.

Gender, IFIs and Food Insecurity Case Study Ethiopia  Published

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Gender, IFIs and Food Insecurity Case Study - Ethiopia.pdf

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Gender, IFIs and Food Insecurity Case Study   Ethiopia

Rural Ethiopians, the majority of whom are women and girls, experience chronic food insecurity. Despite decades of agricul-tural investments from International Finance Institutions (IFIs), including the World Bank (WB), overall productivity in Ethiopia‟s agriculture “perennially dependent on food security programs, and several million more [who] are susceptible to food insuffi-ciency in the event of adverse climatic shocks” (WB, 2008a). Although the WB has invested a total of US$2.5 billion in agri-culture and food security projects in Ethiopia since 1970, a 2010 WB project appraisal document (PAD) stated that “the capacity of [Ethiopia‟s] agricultural institutions is still weak,” “yields remain low, and many geographical areas have unexploited potential for productivity growth” (WB, 2010).

Gendered risks, poverty and vulnerability in Ethiopia  Published

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Gendered risks, poverty and vulnerability in Ethiopia.pdf

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Gendered risks, poverty and vulnerability in Ethiopia

The importance of social protection has become increasingly recognised in recent years, especially in the wake of the recent food price and global economic crises, but there has been little attention to the role that gender plays in the implementation and effectiveness of social protection programmes. It is often assumed that gender is already being addressed in social protection initiatives because many cash or asset transfer programmes and public works schemes target women, drawing on evidence that women are more likely to invest additional income in family well-being. The role that gender relations play in social protection effectiveness is, however, likely to be more complex. Gender norms and dynamics may affect the type of risk that is tackled, the choice of social protection modality implemented, awareness-raising approaches, public buy-in to social safety net programmes and, most importantly, programme outcomes.

Historical survey of land tenure system and women's right to recource access Ethiopia  Published

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Historical survey of land tenure system and women's right to recource access Ethiopia.pdf

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Historical survey of land tenure system and women's right to recource access Ethiopia

This article attempted to examine how the evolution of land tenure system in north and central Ethiopia historically resulted in unequal resource accesses as far as gender relations are concerned.  The article is an outcome of historical research and the researcher has employed a qualitative research method.  Accordingly, written historical documents related to the study were consulted carefully and important secondary sources were also referred to.